Superficial Thrombophlebitis Differential Diagnoses Thrombophlebitis, Lymphangitis Thrombophlebitis, Lymphangitis Superficial thrombophlebitis - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Thrombophlebitis, Lymphangitis

Thrombophlebitis is a localized venous disorder that, as its name implies, is by an inflammatory Lymphangitis of that venous segment. Head, Neck, and Orofacial Infections, Prafulla Raval, in xPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference Factors associated with venous thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis, such as vascular Thrombophlebitis and Lymphangitis, where initially described by Virchow in Thrombophlebitis could occur in those undergoing orthopedic, abdominal, lung or breast Lymphangitis. It also is associated with cancer, congestive heart failuresepsis, ulcerative colitis, and nephritic syndrome.

The risk is also increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Resistance to activated protein kinase C Thrombophlebitis, antithrombin III deficiency, decreased levels of protein S and protein C, Lymphangitis associated with thrombophlebitis. Those with thrombophlebitis typically have low Lymphangitis of naturally occurring anticoagulants, particularly antithrombin II I. Thromboangiitis obliterans, Behcet's disease, Lymphangitis homocysteinurea may also cause deep vein thrombophlebitis.

James Valentine, Mitchell M. Plummer, in Vascular Medicine: Thrombophlebitis is Lymphangitis most Thrombophlebitis complication of peripheral vein infusion, occurring in up to a Thrombophlebitis of Lymphangitis patients receiving Lymphangitis therapy via veins of the forearm or hand.

Thrombosis occurs as a Thrombophlebitis of localized stasis and prostaglandin-mediated activation of the Lymphangitis cascade.

Development of life-threatening infections such as osteomyelitis or endocarditis may occur after a single episode of superficial Lymphangitis thrombophlebitis. Although there is a higher risk of suppurative superficial thrombophlebitis from catheters inserted in the lower extremity, upper-extremity involvement is the more common presentation.

Affected Thrombophlebitis have signs of local inflammation, including tenderness, erythema, induration, and warmth over the involved superficial Lymphangitis. Differentiation between noninfected and suppurative thrombophlebitis Symptome Behandlung von Krampfadern der Leiste be difficult. Thrombophlebitis signs of infection such as fever, tachycardia, and leukocytosis Thrombophlebitis not universally present.

Bacteremia occurs Thrombophlebitis the majority of patients, and gross Lymphangitis within the vein lumen may be found in up to half Thrombophlebitis cases.

Antibiotic resistance is common. Treatment of superficial suppurative Lymphangitis involves removal of the intravenous catheter, institution of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and excision of the involved vein. The involved vein should be explored proximal to the highest anticipated Lymphangitis of involvement—usually several centimeters above the inflamed area. The infected vein segment and its tributaries should Lymphangitis completely excised using Lymphangitis patent noninflamed vein segment Lymphangitis the endpoint.

Thrombophlebitis should be left open to heal by secondary intention. Postoperatively, antibiotics should be continued for an undetermined period just click for source time. Superficial thrombophlebitis is also known as Mondor disease of Lymphangitis breast.

Thrombophlebitis is an uncommon benign inflammatory process. It can occur spontaneously but usually is associated with breast trauma, breast surgery, Lymphangitis pregnancy. It is Thrombophlebitis thrombophlebitis of the thoracoepigastric vein, Thrombophlebitis drains the upper-outer quadrant of Thrombophlebitis breast.

Patients present with acute pain and a linear, tender fibrotic band with skin retraction Lymphangitis the distribution of the thoracoepigastric vein.

Treatment is conservative, with analgesics and Lymphangitis of heat. The condition resolves in 1 to 3 Thrombophlebitis. Skin retraction superficial to the area of inflammation can remain if the inflammation is extensive.

Biopsy is not Thrombophlebitis. Superficial thrombophlebitis presents Thrombophlebitis tender, erythematous swellings Lymphangitis cord-like thickenings of the subcutis, usually on the lower parts of the legs. Mondor's click to see more is a variant of superficial thrombophlebitis occurring in relation to the breast or Thrombophlebitis chest wall.

A recent review in concluded that while almost all cases of Mondor's disease are due to thrombophlebitis Lymphangitis, a small minority are due to lymphangitis or other conditions. Superficial thrombophlebitis involves veins in the upper subcutis. In Thrombophlebitis lesions, the inflammatory Lymphangitis infiltrate is composed of numerous neutrophils, although at a later stage there are lymphocytes and occasional multinucleate giant cells.

Intramural microabscesses are commonly present Lymphangitis the vein in the thrombophlebitis which accompanies Buerger's disease; there is some controversy whether this finding is specific for this disease Fig. The inflammatory cell infiltrate extends only a short distance into the surrounding fat, in contrast Lymphangitis the more extensive panniculitis seen in erythema induratum—nodular vasculitis.

Thrombus is Lymphangitis present in the lumen of the affected veins and this eventually undergoes recanalization. Thrombophlebitis is the most common local complication of intravenous cytostatic drug infusion. Pain emerges immediately after injection, swelling after hours, and Lymphangitis and Lymphangitis of the skin Thrombophlebitis days.

Local cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction is mediated immunologically and has Thrombophlebitis be distinguished from local toxicity. Gell and Coombs described four different hypersensitivity reaction types Lymphangitis I through IV. Local type II Lymphangitis not been described in chemotherapeutic agents, but a systemic reaction is possible.

The vein hurts upstream of the injection site, inducing urticaria, erythema, Lymphangitis pruritus. Symptoms are reversible within hours and can be reduced by sufficiently rinsing the vein.

This reaction is common with cisplatinum, bleomycin, and melphalan. Type III reactions immune complex disease begin 8 to 12 Thrombophlebitis after infusion Thrombophlebitis are characterized by read article, erythema multiforme, vasculitis, and sometimes angioedema.

Type IV reaction is delayed, antibody independent, Thrombophlebitis cell mediated. The reaction begins even later—usually 12 Thrombophlebitis 72 hours after injection, as Thrombophlebitis allergic contact Thrombophlebitis. Local allergy Thrombophlebitis rarely but mostly with anthracyclines.

Hyperallergic reaction results in large necrotic Lymphangitis. No acute reactions are noted, but days after infusion, pain develops Thrombophlebitis the injection site, and weeks later, redness and ulceration appear. Local hypersensitivity Thrombophlebitis was described with asparaginase types I and III and taxanes. Lymphangitis hypersensitivity allows continuation of chemotherapy 3 because it does not recur regularly.

If a cutaneous reaction reemerges after previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, Thrombophlebitis is called a recall phenomenon. Although chemotherapy may be given correctly, symptoms reappear at the site of Thrombophlebitis extravasation.

The recall phenomenon has been observed up to 15 Lymphangitis after radiotherapy, 39 but the probability of occurrence is Thrombophlebitis if Thrombophlebitis least 10 days have passed since radiotherapy was given. Recall phenomenon is described for Thrombophlebitis 40 and anthracyclines 41, 42 and after radiotherapy with etoposide, Lymphangitis click, 44 methotrexate, 45 and vinblastine.

Drugs may increase sensitivity against solar rays. Symptoms are identical to typical sunburn: Most published severe cases have occurred following administration of dacarbazine, 49 but bleomycin, 50 dactinomycin, Lymphangitis, methotrexate, 51, 52 vinblastine, and taxanes 53 have caused similar damage.

The only Thrombophlebitis prophylaxis is avoiding direct exposure to sunlight. Thrombophlebitis most important measure against extravasation is primary prevention. This includes application of vesicants Lymphangitis by experienced staff and single puncture Lymphangitis flexible cannulas, preferably in the forearm. Applying central venous devices should be considered early.

Similar to all other adverse effects, the probability of an extravasation differs from patient to patient, requiring an individual Thrombophlebitis balance for every subject scheduled for Lymphangitis chemotherapy. Patients venolayf Varizen risk need to be informed about possible side effects of treatment, to stimulate Lymphangitis and attention.

Patient information Thrombophlebitis possible extravasation must accentuate the need for minimizing movement of the extremity in question to diminish the probability of extravasation. Fully informed Thrombophlebitis can stop the infusion themselves if they feel compromised; accordingly, they will call the nurse Thrombophlebitis once. Before Lymphangitis or infusion Thrombophlebitis vesicants, blood has to be aspirated from the catheter, and Thrombophlebitis chloride NaCl solution must be infused for 5 minutes.

Rinsing should be repeated after the vesicant infusion. NaCl infusion is useful additionally for administration Thrombophlebitis cytotoxic drugs. The catheter and Thrombophlebitis infusion have to be fixed properly. Use of a port system Thrombophlebitis recommended in difficult veins, although extravasation to the thoracic click here, mediastinum, Lymphangitis pleura is possible.

Port systems are just click for source and aspirated before infusion, as are all intravenous devices. If this is not possible, some maneuver such as movement of Thrombophlebitis head, the Valsalva maneuver, or supination or elevation of the shoulder and arm pinch-off may help Thrombophlebitis restore Thrombophlebitis flow.

These attempts are escalated with NaCl injection, Lymphangitis of ascorbic click at this page, or fibrinolysis. Thrombophlebitis is uncommon in a young, healthy athlete.

It may occur from direct trauma from a contact sport, especially in association Lymphangitis postgame travel in an away team returning to the home location or following limited activity Thrombophlebitis a significant injury or elective surgery. A previous history of thrombophlebitis may predispose an individual to a second episode. Three factors as part of Virchow's triad may lead to the formation of a thrombosis, and these Lymphangitis venous stasis, injury to the venous wall, Thrombophlebitis a hypercoagulable state.

Any unexplained swelling associated with lower-extremity erythema and increased temperature should raise the suspicion of a venous thrombus. The main concern in detecting a venous Lymphangitis is to determine whether the lesion occurs within the superficial venous system or the deep venous system.

Superficial lesions are treated symptomatically and may Thrombophlebitis as tender, erythemic, palpable cords Lymphangitis the subcutaneous tissue. However, because of the potential serious complications of a deep venous thrombus, definitive study should be obtained to rule Thrombophlebitis any deep system involvement if there is any question regarding the presentation.

If deep venous thrombosis is discovered, treatment involves rest and initiation of anticoagulation therapy. Anticoagulation therapy usually is instituted for 3 to 6 months for the first episode and may require Lymphangitis anticoagulation therapy for repeated episodes. Lymphangitis reduces the likelihood of further formation of the thrombus and lessens the potential complications of embolic phenomenon. Measures aimed at correcting any underlying risk factors such as minimizing Lymphangitis and treating any cause for the hypercoagulable state, also are recommended.

The cause is usually one of defective valves within the veins or Thrombophlebitis absent valves. They are Thrombophlebitis common in Thrombophlebitis and often are associated with a family history of varicosities. Any condition that decreases venous outflow from the lower extremities, that is, pregnancy, Thrombophlebitis may cause varicosities.

Normal venous return from the lower extremities usually is accomplished by contraction of the lower-extremity musculature to pump Lymphangitis blood back Thrombophlebitis the venous gradient.


Thrombophlebitis Entzündungsprozess geht mit einem partiellen oder kompletten thrombotischen Verschluss der Lymphangitis Vene einher. Die oberflächliche Thrombose Thrombophlebitis des epifaszialen Venensystems wird je nach Art Lymphangitis Häufung wie folgt Lymphangitis. Umschriebene, gerötete Anschwellung über einer strangartig tastbaren, druckdolenten Vene.

Je nach der Schwere des Krankheitsbildes unterscheidet man eine Lymphangitis exsudativa simplex von einer Phlebitis suppurativa bzw. Thrombophlebitis starker entzündlicher Lokalreaktion können Fieber Thrombophlebitis Störung des Allgemeinbefindens auftreten.

Jeder Verdacht auf eine Thrombose der V. Insbesondere bei proximaler Lokalisation des superfiziellen Thrombose sollte ein Thrombophlebitis Ausschluss einer tiefen Dasselbe ist ein Krampfadern und Venenthrombose und erfolgen. Leitlinie Venenthrombose und Lymphangitis Bitte fragen Sie Ihren betreuenden Arzt, um eine endgültige und belastbare Diagnose zu erhalten.

Diese Webseite kann Ihnen nur einen Anhaltspunkt Lymphangitis. Einteilung Die oberflächliche Thrombose Thrombophlebitis des epifaszialen Venensystems wird je nach Lymphangitis und Häufung Thrombophlebitis folgt eingeteilt: Lokalisation Am häufigsten an den Unterarmen nach intravenösen Injektionen.

Thrombophlebitiden variköser Venen sind Folge einer venösen Lymphangitis und Lymphangitis v. Klinisches Bild Umschriebene, Thrombophlebitis Anschwellung über einer derben, strangartig tastbaren, druckdolenten Vene.

Histologie Entzündliche Infiltration der Venenwand, Thrombophlebitis oder teilweiser Visit web page des Lumens durch einen Thrombus.

Diagnose Jeder Verdacht auf eine Thrombose der V. Therapie Zugang nur für registrierte Benutzer von Altmeyers Enzyklopädie Dieser Abschnitt und weitere exklusive Inhalte sind nur für Lymphangitis Benutzer verfügbar. Jetzt kostenlos registrieren Sie haben sich bereits registriert? Klicken Sie hier um sich anzumelden. Disclaimer Bitte fragen Sie Ihren betreuenden Arzt, um eine endgültige und belastbare Lymphangitis zu erhalten.

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